Sacked Catalan leader ‘is and will remain’ the president

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Sacked Catalan president Carles Puigdemont ‘is and will remain’ the president of the regional government, his deputy said Sunday, and rejected what he called a ‘coup d’etat’ by Madrid.

Oriol Junqueras said, ‘The president of the country is and will remain Carles Puigdemont,’ writing in Catalan newspaper El Punt Avui after the central government seized the regional executive’s powers following a vote by lawmakers to declare independence from Spain.

Notably, Junqueras signed the article ‘Vice President of the government of Catalonia’.

Spain’s deputy prime minister Soraya Saenz de Santamaria has been delegated the powers of the Catalan presidency after Madrid ousted Puigdemont. 

Yesterday Puigdemont defied Madrid by vowing to go to work tomorrow as normal unless he is ‘forcibly prevented’ by the national police.

Barcelona is braced for a day of protest today and a large demonstration is planned for 1pm and Belgium has weighed in on the debate, saying it might grant the Catalan president asylum if he is likely to be arrested.

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Sacked Catalan President Carles Puigdemont embraces a supporter during a walkabout the day after the Catalan regional parliament declared independence from Spain in Girona, Spain, on October 28

Sacked Catalan President Carles Puigdemont embraces a supporter during a walkabout the day after the Catalan regional parliament declared independence from Spain in Girona, Spain, on October 28

Sacked Catalan President Carles Puigdemont embraces a supporter during a walkabout the day after the Catalan regional parliament declared independence from Spain in Girona, Spain, on October 28

People wave Spanish and Catalan flags as they take part at a demonstration to support Spanish National Police and Civil Guard agents who are located at Barcelona's port in Barcelona. The city is braced for more protests today

People wave Spanish and Catalan flags as they take part at a demonstration to support Spanish National Police and Civil Guard agents who are located at Barcelona's port in Barcelona. The city is braced for more protests today

People wave Spanish and Catalan flags as they take part at a demonstration to support Spanish National Police and Civil Guard agents who are located at Barcelona’s port in Barcelona. The city is braced for more protests today

Granting Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont political asylum in Belgium would be “not unrealistic” if he asks for it, the Belgian migration minister said, underlining his country’s position as a contrarian voice in the Spanish standoff.

The Madrid government sacked the Catalan leader and dismissed the region’s parliament on Friday, hours after it declared itself an independent nation.

Spain’s constitutional court has also started a review of Catalonia’s independence vote for prosecutors to decide if it constituted rebellion.

While there was no indication Puigdemont was hoping to come to Belgium, the country is one of few members of the European Union where EU citizens can ask for political asylum.

‘It is not unrealistic if you look at the situation,’ Belgium’s migration minister, Theo Francken, told Belgian broadcaster VTM.

‘They are already talking about a prison sentence,’ Francken, a member of Flemish nationalist party N-VA, said. 

‘The question is to what extent he would get a fair trial.’

It would be difficult for Spain to extradite Puigdemont in such a case, he said.

Meanwhile, Catalan independence parties appear to be losing their parliamentary majority ahead of December’s election, according to a poll published this morning.  

The poll was taken from last Monday to Thursday, just as Spain’s central government was preparing to take control of the restive region, which then made a unilateral declaration of independence on Friday.

Pro-independence parties were seen as taking 42.5 percent of the vote while anti-independence parties would win 43.4 percent, according to the poll of some 1,000 people surveyed by Sigma Dos and published in the anti-independence newspaper El Mundo.

The wafer-thin margin between the two sides predicts a hard-fought campaign to December’s ballot. 

Yesterday afternoon unionists honked their horns and sang pro-Spanish songs in the first significant anti-separatist protest since independence was declared last night and Madrid took over direct control of the Catalan government

Yesterday afternoon unionists honked their horns and sang pro-Spanish songs in the first significant anti-separatist protest since independence was declared last night and Madrid took over direct control of the Catalan government

Yesterday afternoon unionists honked their horns and sang pro-Spanish songs in the first significant anti-separatist protest since independence was declared last night and Madrid took over direct control of the Catalan government

Hundreds of bystanders reacted with smiles and cheers, with many punching the air and waving Spanish flags in response as the motorcade went past

Hundreds of bystanders reacted with smiles and cheers, with many punching the air and waving Spanish flags in response as the motorcade went past

Hundreds of bystanders reacted with smiles and cheers, with many punching the air and waving Spanish flags in response as the motorcade went past

There was a palpable sense of relief as the quiet majority of pro-unionist Catalan bystanders saw their voices expressed in public after independence supporters have dominated he narrative of recent days. Pictured: Attendees of the protest

There was a palpable sense of relief as the quiet majority of pro-unionist Catalan bystanders saw their voices expressed in public after independence supporters have dominated he narrative of recent days. Pictured: Attendees of the protest

Turnout for he controversial referendum was 43 per cent, and traditionally independence has attracted no more than 45 per cent support in polls. Pictured: A protester today

Turnout for he controversial referendum was 43 per cent, and traditionally independence has attracted no more than 45 per cent support in polls. Pictured: A protester today

There was a palpable sense of relief as the quiet majority of pro-unionist Catalan bystanders saw their voices expressed in public after independence supporters have dominated he narrative of recent days. Pictured: Attendees of the protest

The riders were accompanied by at least 100 cars who supported he rally by flying flags, sounding horns and playing Spanish songs from their radios

The riders were accompanied by at least 100 cars who supported he rally by flying flags, sounding horns and playing Spanish songs from their radios

The riders were accompanied by at least 100 cars who supported he rally by flying flags, sounding horns and playing Spanish songs from their radios

Yesterday Puigdemont called on his fellow Catalans to ‘peacefully resist’ attempts by the Spanish authorities to impose direct rule from Madrid in a television address from his hometown of Girona.

His words came after the country’s Prime Minister seized control of the regional government, replaced its ministers and sacked its police chief following the authority’s controversial declaration of independence.

Mr Puigdemont vowed to continue to ‘work to build a free country’ and urged viewers to behave with ‘calm and perseverance’, as well as maintaining a ‘sense of perspective’ in the tumultuous days ahead.

One senior official, Josep Rull, went one step further that Mr Puigdemont, saying that he intended to return to work ‘as a minister in the new Catalan Republic’.

In a speech to colleagues, he said: ‘Nelson Mandela said that a winner is a dreamer who never gives up… Never, never have we surrendered the challenge of leaving our children a better country.’

Yesterday afternoon the Spanish government said it would welcome Mr Puigdemont’s participation in regional elections it has called for December.

On Saturday officers cast a ring of steel around the region’s parliament in Barcelona as demonstrators took to the streets of Madrid in support of a united Spain.

The Catalan police chief Josep Trapero was removed from his post at around 4am this morning amid concerns that local police would resist the national force.

It came after unionists clashed with separatists in Barcelona last night as tens of thousands of locals celebrated independence.

In one incident a pro-separatist radio station was attacked with journalists forced to barricade themselves inside. 

Pope Francis today echoed Mr Puigdemont’s calls for calm and urged the EU to ‘recover the sense of being a single community’ in a speech at the Vatican, although he did not specifically refer to Catalonia.   

Spanish State Secretaries and undersecretaries attend a meeting at the State Secretary of Land Management to start undertaking their respective duties at the Catalan regional ministries after Madrid imposed direct control over the region

Spanish State Secretaries and undersecretaries attend a meeting at the State Secretary of Land Management to start undertaking their respective duties at the Catalan regional ministries after Madrid imposed direct control over the region

Spanish State Secretaries and undersecretaries attend a meeting at the State Secretary of Land Management to start undertaking their respective duties at the Catalan regional ministries after Madrid imposed direct control over the region

Catalan regional police stand guard the morning after the Catalan regional parliament declared independence from Spain

Catalan regional police stand guard the morning after the Catalan regional parliament declared independence from Spain

Catalan regional police stand guard the morning after the Catalan regional parliament declared independence from Spain

Regional police chief Josep Trapero was sacked amid concerns that local police would resist the national force as it imposes central government control on the region

Regional police chief Josep Trapero was sacked amid concerns that local police would resist the national force as it imposes central government control on the region

Regional police chief Josep Trapero was sacked amid concerns that local police would resist the national force as it imposes central government control on the region

Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont gives a speech on national television yesterday afternoon. The politician urged citizens of Catalonia to 'peacefully resist' direct rule from the Spanish government

Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont gives a speech on national television yesterday afternoon. The politician urged citizens of Catalonia to 'peacefully resist' direct rule from the Spanish government

Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont gives a speech on national television yesterday afternoon. The politician urged citizens of Catalonia to ‘peacefully resist’ direct rule from the Spanish government

Protesters in Madrid hold up a sign calling for Catalan regional president Mr Puigdemont's imprisonment yesterday morning

Protesters in Madrid hold up a sign calling for Catalan regional president Mr Puigdemont's imprisonment yesterday morning

Protesters in Madrid hold up a sign calling for Catalan regional president Mr Puigdemont’s imprisonment yesterday morning

Other protesters at the demonstration in the capital's Plaza de Colon held signs saying: 'No to the impunity of coup plotters'

Other protesters at the demonstration in the capital's Plaza de Colon held signs saying: 'No to the impunity of coup plotters'

Other protesters at the demonstration in the capital’s Plaza de Colon held signs saying: ‘No to the impunity of coup plotters’

The demonstration comes the day after the Catalan government was sacked for declaring independence following a controversial referendum

The demonstration comes the day after the Catalan government was sacked for declaring independence following a controversial referendum

The demonstration comes the day after the Catalan government was sacked for declaring independence following a controversial referendum

The unionist motorcycle parade reached the entrance of Barcelona port, where this man waved around a European Union flag

The unionist motorcycle parade reached the entrance of Barcelona port, where this man waved around a European Union flag

The unionist motorcycle parade reached the entrance of Barcelona port, where this man waved around a European Union flag

The demonstrators, pictured here at the end of the protest, were honking horns to show their solidarity with Spain's national police, and opposition to the declaration of independence by Catalonia

The demonstrators, pictured here at the end of the protest, were honking horns to show their solidarity with Spain's national police, and opposition to the declaration of independence by Catalonia

The demonstrators, pictured here at the end of the protest, were honking horns to show their solidarity with Spain’s national police, and opposition to the declaration of independence by Catalonia

The demonstrators, noisy but peaceful, headed towards the port, where reinforcements of national police and Spain's Guardia Civil have been staying since they were deployed in the area before the illegal independence referendum 

The demonstrators, noisy but peaceful, headed towards the port, where reinforcements of national police and Spain's Guardia Civil have been staying since they were deployed in the area before the illegal independence referendum 

The demonstrators, noisy but peaceful, headed towards the port, where reinforcements of national police and Spain’s Guardia Civil have been staying since they were deployed in the area before the illegal independence referendum 

The independence flag of Catalonia is held up at Saturday's La Liga football match between Athletic Bilbao and FC Barcelona

The independence flag of Catalonia is held up at Saturday's La Liga football match between Athletic Bilbao and FC Barcelona

The independence flag of Catalonia is held up at Saturday’s La Liga football match between Athletic Bilbao and FC Barcelona

Revellers hold fireworks as they take part in a "Correfoc", or "run with fire", party in Cornella Llobregat, outskirts Barcelona

Revellers hold fireworks as they take part in a "Correfoc", or "run with fire", party in Cornella Llobregat, outskirts Barcelona

Revellers hold fireworks as they take part in a ‘Correfoc’, or ‘run with fire’, party in Cornella Llobregat, outskirts Barcelona

The traditional festival originates from medieval street theatre that represented the fight of good against evil through parades featuring fireworks and effigies of the devil

The traditional festival originates from medieval street theatre that represented the fight of good against evil through parades featuring fireworks and effigies of the devil

The traditional festival originates from medieval street theatre that represented the fight of good against evil through parades featuring fireworks and effigies of the devil

What happens now?

Direct rule 

Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy sacked Catalonia’s government including regional president Carles Puigdemont and his deputy Oriol Junqueras and assumed direct control over the region.

Central government ministries will assume directly the powers of the Catalan administration until a regional election takes place on Dec. 21.

Elections

It is not clear whether a snap regional election will resolve the crisis.

An opinion poll published by the El Periodico newspaper on Sunday showed a snap election would probably have results similar to the last ballot in 2015, when a coalition of pro-independence parties formed a minority government.

Other opinion polls have shown Catalonia is almost evenly split between pro- and anti-independence supporters.

Civil disobedience 

Catalonia’s main secessionist groups have called for widespread civil disobedience. They also instructed civil servants not to obey orders from Madrid and respond with peaceful resistance. It is unclear whether such calls will be followed or not.

Use of force

Spain’s government said it was not planning to make any arrests, but it is unclear how it will proceed if the current regional administration staff refuse to leave their offices.

A growing number of analysts fear this could lead to a physical confrontation if national police, who used heavy-handed tactics to thwart an Oct. 1 vote on independence, seek to intervene.

Police

One of the main problems over the implementation of direct rule will relate to Catalonia’s own police forces, the Mossos d’Esquadra.

Rajoy said the Mossos chief would be fired.

But a group of Mossos favouring independence has already said they would not follow instructions from the central government and would not use force to remove ministers and lawmakers from power.

Several officers told Reuters they believed the 17,000-strong force was split between those who want independence and those who oppose it.

The Mossos, whose chief is under investigation on suspicion of sedition, will have to act on direct orders from their new bosses. If deemed necessary, Mossos officers may be replaced by national police.

Finances

The Economy Ministry has already increased its control over regional finances, to block the use of state funds to organise the secession bid, and started paying directly for essential services.

Under the new proposal, Madrid will take full financial control.

Many companies have however said on condition of anonymity that they feared a new Catalan treasury could start levying taxes, and that they would seek to move their tax base outside Catalonia.

It is also possible that some pro-independence Catalans will stop paying their taxes to the Spanish treasury.

Public media

The Spanish government had initially said it would control widely watched Catalan public television TV3, but it eventually dropped that plan.

The media is likely to play an important role in the run-up to the new election in Catalonia.

Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy has stripped Catalonia’s most senior police officials of their powers and taken control of its civil service, finances and public media ahead of snap local elections announced for December 21.

And Spain’s top prosecutor has warned that the local politicians responsible for the independence vote could face treason charges and up to 25 years in prison, with arrests planned for as early as Monday. 

Yesterday morning thousands of unionists protesters took to Madrid’s Plaza de Colon as they called for Mr Puigdemont to be jailed.

And at around 5.30pm hundreds of motorcyclists draped in Spanish flags roared through Barcelona in a massive show of support for Madrid.

Bystanders reacted with smiles and cheers, with many punching the air and waving Spanish flags in response.

Mr Rajoy announced that he had sacked the local government on television last night, adding that ‘central government will assume the powers of the Catalonian administration’.

Speaking yesterday, he said: ‘Spain is living through a sad day. We believe it is urgent to listen to Catalan citizens, to all of them, so that they can decide their future and nobody can act outside the law on their behalf.

‘Today, the Catalonia parliament has approved something that in the opinion of a large majority of people not only goes against the law but is a criminal act.’  

Mr Rajoy’s deputy Soraya Saenz de Santamaria has been put in charge of the Catalan government until the local elections. 

She will coordinate other ministries that take over functions of Catalonia’s regional departments, including finances and security, and appoint officials to implement orders from Madrid. 

Some among Catalonia’s roughly 200,000 civil servants have said they will refuse to obey orders from Madrid. 

The prime minister’s announcement last night was met with jeers and whistles outside the government palace in Barcelona.

The declaration of independence comes after the region held an independence referendum on October 1 during which more than 800 people were hurt in clashes.

Trapero is already under investigation on charges of sedition after being accused of ‘preventing the application of laws’ during the controversial public vote. 

He has already been replaced by Ferran López, who is seen by Madrid as a more compliant figure likely to work with central government. 

Yesterday’s result sparked celebrations in the streets of Barcelona where separatists were seen drinking cava, the sparkling wine made in Catalonia, in the street.

But the declaration has failed to gain recognition from the international community.

British Prime Minister Theresa May condemned the decision as ‘illegal’.

While Germany, France, Italy and the USA also said they will not recognise a sovereign Catalonian state and nor will the EU. 

The 28-nation bloc’s president, Donald Tusk, last night urged Spain not to descend into violence amid the tensions.  

In contrast, Scotland’s SNP government said that it ‘respects and understands’ Catalonia’s vote for independence, and said Catalans ‘must have the ability to determine their own future’. 

And in Berlin this afternoon pro-Catalan independence protesters were seen demonstrating outside the Brandenburg Gate.

The Spanish senate voted to impose direct rule on the region just 40 minutes after the Catalan parliament backed independence.

But before the vote in Barcelona, opposition parties stormed out of parliament in protest – with pro-independence MPs draping their empty seats with Catalan flags.  

Spain’s king, Felipe VI, who has spoken out firmly against Catalan independence in the past, has cleared his diary for the week in order to focus on dealing with the emergency. 

Independence was approved with 70 MPs in favour, 10 against and two blank ballots in the 135-member parliament.

Spain’s constitutional court has started a review of the independence vote held in Catalonia’s parliament, with the state prosecutor and other parties given three days to make allegations of wrongdoing.

After the vote, Catalan President Carles Puigdemont said: ‘Today our legitimate parliament, that came out of a democratic election, has taken a very important step. The legitimate representative of the citizens have followed the people’s mandate.

‘Now we are facing times when we will need to keep calm and peaceful and always keep dignity, as we’ve always done. Long live Catalonia!’ 

Pro-independence groups have vowed a campaign of civil disobedience to protect public buildings on the event of a crackdown by Madrid, which may involve the feared national riot police and even the army. 

Mr Trapero has been replaced by Ferran Lopez, pictured right with the Spanish Minister of Home Affairs Juan Ignazio Zoido. Lopez is seen by Madrid as a more compliant figure likely to work with central government

Mr Trapero has been replaced by Ferran Lopez, pictured right with the Spanish Minister of Home Affairs Juan Ignazio Zoido. Lopez is seen by Madrid as a more compliant figure likely to work with central government

Mr Trapero has been replaced by Ferran Lopez, pictured right with the Spanish Minister of Home Affairs Juan Ignazio Zoido. Lopez is seen by Madrid as a more compliant figure likely to work with central government

Catalonia's police chief Josep Trapero, pictured earlier this month, was removed from his post at 4am this morning

Catalonia's police chief Josep Trapero, pictured earlier this month, was removed from his post at 4am this morning

Catalonia’s police chief Josep Trapero, pictured earlier this month, was removed from his post at 4am this morning

Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy tonight sacked the Catalan government along with the region's police chief and ordered elections for December 21 after a special Cabinet meeting to discuss his response to the crisis

Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy tonight sacked the Catalan government along with the region's police chief and ordered elections for December 21 after a special Cabinet meeting to discuss his response to the crisis

Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy tonight sacked the Catalan government along with the region’s police chief and ordered elections for December 21 after a special Cabinet meeting to discuss his response to the crisis

The sacked Catalan president hugs a supporter in Girona. The politician vowed to continue to 'work to build a free country' in his televised speech this afternoon

The sacked Catalan president hugs a supporter in Girona. The politician vowed to continue to 'work to build a free country' in his televised speech this afternoon

The sacked Catalan president hugs a supporter in Girona. The politician vowed to continue to ‘work to build a free country’ in his televised speech this afternoon

Mr Puigdemont poses on a bridge in front of buildings displaying Catalan flags and pro-independence banners during his walkabout in Girona

Mr Puigdemont poses on a bridge in front of buildings displaying Catalan flags and pro-independence banners during his walkabout in Girona

Mr Puigdemont poses on a bridge in front of buildings displaying Catalan flags and pro-independence banners during his walkabout in Girona

Mr Puigdemont gives a thumbs up to dozens of supporters as he leaves a restaurant in Girona, a Catalan city around 50 miles from Barcelona, this afternoon

Mr Puigdemont gives a thumbs up to dozens of supporters as he leaves a restaurant in Girona, a Catalan city around 50 miles from Barcelona, this afternoon

Mr Puigdemont gives a thumbs up to dozens of supporters as he leaves a restaurant in Girona, a Catalan city around 50 miles from Barcelona, this afternoon

Thousands of Catalans gathered outside the parliament building and cheered and danced after the motion passed. 

The Spanish prime minister wrote on Twitter immediately after the vote: ‘I ask all Spaniards to remain calm. The rule of law will restore legality in Catalonia.’ 

After the vote in Barcelona, MPs stood to chant the Catalan anthem while Puigdemont and his vice president, Oriol Junqueras, exchanged congratulatory embraces and handshakes.

Puigdemont added in his remarks after the vote: ‘It is the institutions and also the people who have to work together to help build a country.’

Reacting to the crisis, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker warned of ‘more cracks’ emerging in the EU.

The European Union will only deal with the central government in Madrid, according to the president of the European Council Donald Tusk.

‘For the EU nothing changes. Spain remains our only interlocutor. I hope the Spanish government favours force of argument, not argument of force,’ Tusk wrote on Twitter. 

Antonio Tajani, who was appointed President of the European Parliament earlier this year, was similarly scathing, saying ‘nobody’ in the EU would recognise Catalonia as an independent country. 

He later praised Spain’s decision to call a new election in Catalonia after the region’s unilateral declaration of independence, saying it was ‘the right thing to do.’ 

Catalan separatist flags are held up as fireworks go off in Sant Jaume Square in front of the Catalan regional government headquarters during celebrations on Friday night

Catalan separatist flags are held up as fireworks go off in Sant Jaume Square in front of the Catalan regional government headquarters during celebrations on Friday night

Catalan separatist flags are held up as fireworks go off in Sant Jaume Square in front of the Catalan regional government headquarters during celebrations on Friday night

The firework displays last night took place after a day of fast-moving political developments and the situation remains tense into tonight

The firework displays last night took place after a day of fast-moving political developments and the situation remains tense into tonight

The firework displays last night took place after a day of fast-moving political developments and the situation remains tense into tonight

The government and Spain's Constitutional Court have both said the secession bid was illegal, and after Friday's independence vote, Rajoy said it was a move that "not only goes against the law but is a criminal act'

The government and Spain's Constitutional Court have both said the secession bid was illegal, and after Friday's independence vote, Rajoy said it was a move that "not only goes against the law but is a criminal act'

The government and Spain’s Constitutional Court have both said the secession bid was illegal, and after Friday’s independence vote, Rajoy said it was a move that ‘not only goes against the law but is a criminal act’

Violence flared on the streets of the Catalan capital on Friday night as furious unionists attacked Catalunya Radio, blaming journalists there for causing the independence declaration with their 'fake news'

Violence flared on the streets of the Catalan capital on Friday night as furious unionists attacked Catalunya Radio, blaming journalists there for causing the independence declaration with their 'fake news'

Violence flared on the streets of the Catalan capital on Friday night as furious unionists attacked Catalunya Radio, blaming journalists there for causing the independence declaration with their ‘fake news’

A unionist protester is searched by the Catalan police during the anti-independence demonstration on Friday night

A unionist protester is searched by the Catalan police during the anti-independence demonstration on Friday night

A unionist protester tonight

A unionist protester tonight

A unionist protester is searched by the Catalan police during the anti-independence demonstration on Friday night

Pro-independence supporters carry an 'Estelada' or independence flag in downtown Barcelona yesterday evening where thousands of people gathered

Pro-independence supporters carry an 'Estelada' or independence flag in downtown Barcelona yesterday evening where thousands of people gathered

Pro-independence supporters carry an ‘Estelada’ or independence flag in downtown Barcelona yesterday evening where thousands of people gathered

Catalan police stands preventing demonstrators from moving forward during a march against the unilateral declaration of independence approved by the region's parliament yesterday

Catalan police stands preventing demonstrators from moving forward during a march against the unilateral declaration of independence approved by the region's parliament yesterday

Catalan police stands preventing demonstrators from moving forward during a march against the unilateral declaration of independence approved by the region’s parliament yesterday

Anti-independence activists are prevented from moving forward by Catalan police as they marched through Barcelona last tonight

Anti-independence activists are prevented from moving forward by Catalan police as they marched through Barcelona last tonight

Anti-independence activists are prevented from moving forward by Catalan police as they marched through Barcelona last tonight

Among the thousands of people waving Catalan flags were a significant number of protesters with Spanish ones, including this man, pictured

Among the thousands of people waving Catalan flags were a significant number of protesters with Spanish ones, including this man, pictured

Among the thousands of people waving Catalan flags were a significant number of protesters with Spanish ones, including this man, pictured

There was a heavy police presence as officers made sure a march against independence from Spain went ahead peacefully 

There was a heavy police presence as officers made sure a march against independence from Spain went ahead peacefully 

There was a heavy police presence as officers made sure a march against independence from Spain went ahead peacefully 

Pro-independence supporters release fireworks and wave "estelada" flags in the square outside the Palau Generalitat in Barcelona

Pro-independence supporters release fireworks and wave "estelada" flags in the square outside the Palau Generalitat in Barcelona

Pro-independence supporters release fireworks and wave ‘estelada’ flags in the square outside the Palau Generalitat in Barcelona

There are fears the raucous scenes on the streets of Barcelona this evening could turn violent as passions run high over the independence debate

There are fears the raucous scenes on the streets of Barcelona this evening could turn violent as passions run high over the independence debate

There are fears the raucous scenes on the streets of Barcelona this evening could turn violent as passions run high over the independence debate

Rajoy's announcement was met with jeers and whistles outside the government palace in Barcelona, where thousands have been celebrating the independence declaration

Rajoy's announcement was met with jeers and whistles outside the government palace in Barcelona, where thousands have been celebrating the independence declaration

Rajoy’s announcement was met with jeers and whistles outside the government palace in Barcelona, where thousands have been celebrating the independence declaration

The declaration of independence was criticised by world leaders including Theresa May, who tonight said Britain 'will not recognise' Catalan independence as it was based on an 'illegal' vote. Pictured: Anti-independence protesters in Barcelona

The declaration of independence was criticised by world leaders including Theresa May, who tonight said Britain 'will not recognise' Catalan independence as it was based on an 'illegal' vote. Pictured: Anti-independence protesters in Barcelona

The declaration of independence was criticised by world leaders including Theresa May, who tonight said Britain ‘will not recognise’ Catalan independence as it was based on an ‘illegal’ vote. Pictured: Anti-independence protesters in Barcelona

The independence motion was passed in the 135-strong assembly with 70 votes in favour, 10 against and 2 blank ballots, the assembly's speaker said. Pictured: A crowd in Barcelona reacts to the news yesterday

The independence motion was passed in the 135-strong assembly with 70 votes in favour, 10 against and 2 blank ballots, the assembly's speaker said. Pictured: A crowd in Barcelona reacts to the news yesterday

The independence motion was passed in the 135-strong assembly with 70 votes in favour, 10 against and 2 blank ballots, the assembly’s speaker said. Pictured: A crowd in Barcelona reacts to the news yesterday

Former Ukip leader Nigel Farage said the declaration of independence had been caused by the ‘appalling behaviour’ of the Spanish Government who had pushed Catalonia ‘too far’.

He added: ‘This is going to turn into the EU’s most undesired nightmare.’ 

The main secessionist group in Catalonia, the Catalan National Assembly (ANC), called on civil servants to meet orders from Madrid with ‘peaceful resistance’.

Shares in Catalan banks fell sharply in response to the news – dragging the entire stock market with them.

CaixaBank, Spain’s third largest lender, fell by around five per cent while Sabadell, the country’s fifth biggest bank, fell roughly six percent. 

Nearly 1,700 companies have moved their headquarters outside of Catalonia since the referendum. 

The Ibex 35 stock index was down 1.3 percent on a day when most European markets rose. Spanish bonds were also down, but just slightly.

The market movements are modest, considering the momentous nature of the conflict. Catalonia accounts for a fifth of the Spanish economy, which is the fourth-largest in the 19-country eurozone.

Investors seem to believe the crisis will be resolved, though analysts say the risks are growing daily. Spain’s Senate in Madrid has approved measures for the central government to take direct control of Catalonia. 

Stephen Brown, economist at Capital Economics, said: ‘We still think that the economic effects of this political crisis will be manageable.’  

The Catalan parliament finally declared the region independent on Friday after Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy said he wants Spain to take direct control of Catalonia. Pictured: President Puigdemont voting

The Catalan parliament finally declared the region independent on Friday after Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy said he wants Spain to take direct control of Catalonia. Pictured: President Puigdemont voting

The Catalan parliament finally declared the region independent on Friday after Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy said he wants Spain to take direct control of Catalonia. Pictured: President Puigdemont voting

Before Friday's vote, opposition parties stormed out of parliament in protest - with pro-independence MPs draped their empty seats with Catalan flags

Before Friday's vote, opposition parties stormed out of parliament in protest - with pro-independence MPs draped their empty seats with Catalan flags

Before Friday’s vote, opposition parties stormed out of parliament in protest – with pro-independence MPs draped their empty seats with Catalan flags

Attention now turns to the government in Madrid, which has invoked article 155 of the constitution, dismantling Catalonia's autonomy. Pictured: Jubilant Catalans celebrate the news

Attention now turns to the government in Madrid, which has invoked article 155 of the constitution, dismantling Catalonia's autonomy. Pictured: Jubilant Catalans celebrate the news

Attention now turns to the government in Madrid, which has invoked article 155 of the constitution, dismantling Catalonia’s autonomy. Pictured: Jubilant Catalans celebrate the news

The Spanish prime minister - pictured at yesterday's cabinet meeting - wrote on Twitter immediately after the vote: 'I ask all Spaniards to remain calm. The rule of law will restore legality in Catalonia'

The Spanish prime minister - pictured at yesterday's cabinet meeting - wrote on Twitter immediately after the vote: 'I ask all Spaniards to remain calm. The rule of law will restore legality in Catalonia'

The Spanish prime minister – pictured at yesterday’s cabinet meeting – wrote on Twitter immediately after the vote: ‘I ask all Spaniards to remain calm. The rule of law will restore legality in Catalonia’

Prime Minister Rajoy presides over an extraordinary cabinet meeting that was called this afternoon at Moncloa Palace in Madrid 

Prime Minister Rajoy presides over an extraordinary cabinet meeting that was called this afternoon at Moncloa Palace in Madrid 

Prime Minister Rajoy presides over an extraordinary cabinet meeting that was called this afternoon at Moncloa Palace in Madrid 

The proposal for independence made by the ruling Catalan coalition Junts pel Si (Together for Yes) and their allies of the far-left CUP party said: 'We establish a Catalan Republic as an independent and sovereign state of democratic and social law'. Pictured: Puigdemont with his wife yesterday

The proposal for independence made by the ruling Catalan coalition Junts pel Si (Together for Yes) and their allies of the far-left CUP party said: 'We establish a Catalan Republic as an independent and sovereign state of democratic and social law'. Pictured: Puigdemont with his wife yesterday

The proposal for independence made by the ruling Catalan coalition Junts pel Si (Together for Yes) and their allies of the far-left CUP party said: ‘We establish a Catalan Republic as an independent and sovereign state of democratic and social law’. Pictured: Puigdemont with his wife yesterday

Legislators from both parliamentary groups in Catalonia have a slim majority which allowed them to pass the motion during a vote on Friday. Pictured: Puigdemont arriving at the parliament yesterday

Legislators from both parliamentary groups in Catalonia have a slim majority which allowed them to pass the motion during a vote on Friday. Pictured: Puigdemont arriving at the parliament yesterday

Legislators from both parliamentary groups in Catalonia have a slim majority which allowed them to pass the motion during a vote on Friday. Pictured: Puigdemont arriving at the parliament yesterday

Catalan President Carles Puigdemont and Vice President Oriol Junqueras, left, chat during the session inside the Catalan parliament in Barcelona yesterday

Catalan President Carles Puigdemont and Vice President Oriol Junqueras, left, chat during the session inside the Catalan parliament in Barcelona yesterday

Catalan President Carles Puigdemont and Vice President Oriol Junqueras, left, chat during the session inside the Catalan parliament in Barcelona yesterday

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont and his wife Marcela Topor arriving at the Catalan parliament in Barcelona yesterday

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont and his wife Marcela Topor arriving at the Catalan parliament in Barcelona yesterday

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont and his wife Marcela Topor arriving at the Catalan parliament in Barcelona yesterday

The senate, where Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy's Popular Party holds a majority, met to vote on steps to depose Catalonia's secessionist government before the week is out. Pictured: Spain's PM arriving in Parliament yesterday morning

The senate, where Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy's Popular Party holds a majority, met to vote on steps to depose Catalonia's secessionist government before the week is out. Pictured: Spain's PM arriving in Parliament yesterday morning

The senate, where Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy’s Popular Party holds a majority, met to vote on steps to depose Catalonia’s secessionist government before the week is out. Pictured: Spain’s PM arriving in Parliament yesterday morning

Catalan secessionists have already registered a motion with their parliament to proclaim independence from Spain though it is unclear whether the text would be put to a vote, newspaper La Vanguardia said. Pictured: Rajoy yesterday in the senate

Catalan secessionists have already registered a motion with their parliament to proclaim independence from Spain though it is unclear whether the text would be put to a vote, newspaper La Vanguardia said. Pictured: Rajoy yesterday in the senate

Catalan secessionists have already registered a motion with their parliament to proclaim independence from Spain though it is unclear whether the text would be put to a vote, newspaper La Vanguardia said. Pictured: Rajoy yesterday in the senate

Speaking to the senate, Rajoy (pictured being applauded by lawmakers) said Spain had to force Catalonia to submit to the Spanish constitution. He also attacked the region for 'mocking democracy' in a way reminiscent of the era of fascist Spanish leader Francisco Franco, and said he wanted 'a return to legality'

Speaking to the senate, Rajoy (pictured being applauded by lawmakers) said Spain had to force Catalonia to submit to the Spanish constitution. He also attacked the region for 'mocking democracy' in a way reminiscent of the era of fascist Spanish leader Francisco Franco, and said he wanted 'a return to legality'

Speaking to the senate, Rajoy (pictured being applauded by lawmakers) said Spain had to force Catalonia to submit to the Spanish constitution. He also attacked the region for ‘mocking democracy’ in a way reminiscent of the era of fascist Spanish leader Francisco Franco, and said he wanted ‘a return to legality’

The unprecedented move could spark violence or push the rebel region's parliament to declare independence. Pictured: Rajoy being applauded in the senate yesterday morning

The unprecedented move could spark violence or push the rebel region's parliament to declare independence. Pictured: Rajoy being applauded in the senate yesterday morning

The unprecedented move could spark violence or push the rebel region’s parliament to declare independence. Pictured: Rajoy being applauded in the senate yesterday morning

The invocation of Article 155 has resulted in the whole Catalan goverment being dismissed. Pictured: Rajoy speaking to the senate yesterday, urging lawmakers to adopt the measure

The invocation of Article 155 has resulted in the whole Catalan goverment being dismissed. Pictured: Rajoy speaking to the senate yesterday, urging lawmakers to adopt the measure

The invocation of Article 155 has resulted in the whole Catalan goverment being dismissed. Pictured: Rajoy speaking to the senate yesterday, urging lawmakers to adopt the measure

A member of the Catalan parliament who is opposed to independence holds a "No" ballot during the independence voting session

A member of the Catalan parliament who is opposed to independence holds a "No" ballot during the independence voting session

A member of the Catalan parliament who is opposed to independence holds a ‘No’ ballot during the independence voting session

Opponents of Catalan independence shouted across the wooden benches in the parliament, while those in favour sung the national anthem after the outcome of the vote was announced

Opponents of Catalan independence shouted across the wooden benches in the parliament, while those in favour sung the national anthem after the outcome of the vote was announced

Opponents of Catalan independence shouted across the wooden benches in the parliament, while those in favour sung the national anthem after the outcome of the vote was announced

This opponent of independence held a Spanish flag during the heated session in the Catalan parliament yesterday

This opponent of independence held a Spanish flag during the heated session in the Catalan parliament yesterday

This opponent of independence held a Spanish flag during the heated session in the Catalan parliament yesterday

On Thursday afternoon in the Catalan town of Girona, supporters of the region’s independence bid removed the Spanish national flag from the town hall building and replaced it with the Catalan regional flag.

Video footage filmed in Girona, northeast of the regional capital of Barcelona, showed a crowd cheering ‘out, out, out with the Spanish flag!’ shortly after Catalonia’s parliament voted to declare an independent republic.

Speaking to senators yesterday, Rajoy said Spain had to force Catalonia to submit to the Spanish constitution.

He also attacked the region for ‘mocking democracy’ in a way reminiscent of the era of fascist Spanish leader Francisco Franco, and said he wanted ‘a return to legality’. 

The approved proposal for independence made by the ruling Catalan coalition Junts pel Si (Together for Yes) and their allies of the far-left CUP party said: ‘We establish a Catalan Republic as an independent and sovereign state of democratic and social law.’ 

MPs from the opposition Socialists and Citizens parties, who walked out before the vote, had announced earlier that they would boycott the vote.

Lawmakers from Partido Popular – the ruling party at the national level, but a minority in Catalonia – also walked out after placing Spanish and Catalonia official flags in their empty seats. 

‘Today is the day that many Catalans’ long-held desire will be fulfilled, but tomorrow the cruel reality will set in with the Spanish state armed with its interpretation of Article 155,’ the former speaker of the Catalan parliament Joan Rigol i Roig, said before the vote. ‘We can only hope that the conflict remains in the political realm.’

A socialist lawmaker in the parliament lambasted the separatists for bending national and regional laws to move toward declaring independence before the vote and vowed to work ‘for the return of legality to public institutions.’ 

Catalan President Carles Puigdemont said he will not call a snap election during a statement at the Palau Generalitat in Barcelona on Thursday 

Catalan President Carles Puigdemont said he will not call a snap election during a statement at the Palau Generalitat in Barcelona on Thursday 

Catalan President Carles Puigdemont said he will not call a snap election during a statement at the Palau Generalitat in Barcelona on Thursday 

Catalonian could explode into violence this morning as the Spanish parliament is due to seize control of the rebel region in a bid to end its struggle for independence. Pictured: Angry protesters in Barcelona yesterday

Catalonian could explode into violence this morning as the Spanish parliament is due to seize control of the rebel region in a bid to end its struggle for independence. Pictured: Angry protesters in Barcelona yesterday

Catalonian could explode into violence this morning as the Spanish parliament is due to seize control of the rebel region in a bid to end its struggle for independence. Pictured: Angry protesters in Barcelona yesterday

Catalan independence supporters gathered outside the Parliament of Catalonia ahead of the vote to call for independence from Spain - a demand they were soon granted

Catalan independence supporters gathered outside the Parliament of Catalonia ahead of the vote to call for independence from Spain - a demand they were soon granted

Catalan independence supporters gathered outside the Parliament of Catalonia ahead of the vote to call for independence from Spain – a demand they were soon granted

Thousands of protesters in Barcelona cheer in response to the news that the Catalan parliament has voted to declare independence from Spain

Thousands of protesters in Barcelona cheer in response to the news that the Catalan parliament has voted to declare independence from Spain

Thousands of protesters in Barcelona cheer in response to the news that the Catalan parliament has voted to declare independence from Spain

Rajoy's cabinet enaacted measures to take control of Catalonia during a special meeting. Pictured: Protesters in Barcelona before the vote in parliament

Rajoy's cabinet enaacted measures to take control of Catalonia during a special meeting. Pictured: Protesters in Barcelona before the vote in parliament

Rajoy’s cabinet enaacted measures to take control of Catalonia during a special meeting. Pictured: Protesters in Barcelona before the vote in parliament

People cheer as they watch on giant screens in Barcelona as the Catalan parliament votes in favour of the region's independence from Spain

People cheer as they watch on giant screens in Barcelona as the Catalan parliament votes in favour of the region's independence from Spain

People cheer as they watch on giant screens in Barcelona as the Catalan parliament votes in favour of the region’s independence from Spain

After the vote, Puigdemont said: 'Today our legitimate parliament, that came out of a democratic election, has taken a very important step.' Pictured: Champagne is broken open in celebration of the declaration

After the vote, Puigdemont said: 'Today our legitimate parliament, that came out of a democratic election, has taken a very important step.' Pictured: Champagne is broken open in celebration of the declaration

After the vote, Puigdemont said: ‘Today our legitimate parliament, that came out of a democratic election, has taken a very important step.’ Pictured: Champagne is broken open in celebration of the declaration

People celebrate after Catalonia's parliament voted to declare independence from Spain in Barcelona, the region's capital

People celebrate after Catalonia's parliament voted to declare independence from Spain in Barcelona, the region's capital

People celebrate after Catalonia’s parliament voted to declare independence from Spain in Barcelona, the region’s capital

Pro-independence groups have vowed a campaign of civil disobedience to protect public buildings on the event of a crackdown by Madrid, which may involve the feared national riot police and even the army 

Pro-independence groups have vowed a campaign of civil disobedience to protect public buildings on the event of a crackdown by Madrid, which may involve the feared national riot police and even the army 

Pro-independence groups have vowed a campaign of civil disobedience to protect public buildings on the event of a crackdown by Madrid, which may involve the feared national riot police and even the army 

There are fears the developments could lead to violence as Spain attempts to impose rule on the rebellious region. Pictured: A delighted woman celebrates the news in Barcelona 

There are fears the developments could lead to violence as Spain attempts to impose rule on the rebellious region. Pictured: A delighted woman celebrates the news in Barcelona 

There are fears the developments could lead to violence as Spain attempts to impose rule on the rebellious region. Pictured: A delighted woman celebrates the news in Barcelona 

The European Union will only deal with the central government in Madrid, the president of the European Council Donald Tusk said in response to the news. Pictured: Champagne flowing in the streets of Barcelona 

The European Union will only deal with the central government in Madrid, the president of the European Council Donald Tusk said in response to the news. Pictured: Champagne flowing in the streets of Barcelona 

The European Union will only deal with the central government in Madrid, the president of the European Council Donald Tusk said in response to the news. Pictured: Champagne flowing in the streets of Barcelona 

Thousands of Catalans gathered outside the parliament building (pictured in the centre) and cheered and danced after the motion passed

Thousands of Catalans gathered outside the parliament building (pictured in the centre) and cheered and danced after the motion passed

Thousands of Catalans gathered outside the parliament building (pictured in the centre) and cheered and danced after the motion passed

A young woman reacts outside the Catalan parliament in Barcelona after the news filters out to the crowd watching the parliamentary session in the street  

A young woman reacts outside the Catalan parliament in Barcelona after the news filters out to the crowd watching the parliamentary session in the street  

A young woman reacts outside the Catalan parliament in Barcelona after the news filters out to the crowd watching the parliamentary session in the street  

Spokesman Eva Granados said the separatists are ‘thoughtless’ and asked them why to build a new country based on a concept of democracy that is ‘intolerant and sectarian,’ and that excludes those opposed to independence.

Meanwhile Carlos Carrizosa, spokesman for the pro-union Citizens party, ripped up the copy of the proposed law to declare independence during the debate prior to the vote.

He said: ‘With this paper you leave those Catalans who don’t follow you orphaned without a government, and that’s why Citizens won’t let you ruin Catalonia.’

He added that ‘today is a sad, dramatic day in Catalonia. Today is the day that you (secessionists) carry out your coup against the democracy in Spain.’ 

Waving Catalan flags and chanting ‘independence’ and ‘freedom,’ thousands of demonstrators rallied outside the park in which parliament is located, hoping to see the proclamation of a new independent state by the end of the day.

Several hundred Catalan town mayors also joined in a chant for ‘Independence!’ inside Catalonia’s regional parliament building ahead of yesterday’s vote.

A 68-year-old protester, Jordi Soler, said: ‘I am here today because we will start the Catalan Republic.’

Soler said ‘today is the last chance,’ noting that President Puigdemont had offered to negotiate with the central government in Madrid, ‘but Madrid is starting with total repression and there is no longer any (other) option.’  

Spain is expected to send its own representatives to rule the region for as long as the ‘exceptional situation’ persists, Rajoy said yesterday. 

It would also mean that Catalonia’s police force, public broadcasters and parliament would come under the direct control of the central government. 

Tensions: University students caused chaos after calling a 'strike' to demonstrate the Spanish government's looming revoking of Catalan autonomy, but it saw lectures cancelled and others prevented from entering university grounds

Tensions: University students caused chaos after calling a 'strike' to demonstrate the Spanish government's looming revoking of Catalan autonomy, but it saw lectures cancelled and others prevented from entering university grounds

Tensions: University students caused chaos after calling a ‘strike’ to demonstrate the Spanish government’s looming revoking of Catalan autonomy, but it saw lectures cancelled and others prevented from entering university grounds

Catalonia's regional government met on Thursday night to debate its next move before Madrid carries out a threat to start revoking its powers from Friday morning

Catalonia's regional government met on Thursday night to debate its next move before Madrid carries out a threat to start revoking its powers from Friday morning

Catalonia’s regional government met on Thursday night to debate its next move before Madrid carries out a threat to start revoking its powers from Friday morning

Mr Puigdemont sat glumly as he listened to the debate, while outside supporters of independence branded him a 'traitor'

Mr Puigdemont sat glumly as he listened to the debate, while outside supporters of independence branded him a 'traitor'

Mr Puigdemont sat glumly as he listened to the debate, while outside supporters of independence branded him a ‘traitor’

Supporters of independence gathered outside the parliament building where they listened to the debate on their phones

Supporters of independence gathered outside the parliament building where they listened to the debate on their phones

Supporters of independence gathered outside the parliament building where they listened to the debate on their phones

Marchers who took to the streets of Barcelona on Thursday sat outside the parliament building ahead of another march planned for 10am on Friday

Marchers who took to the streets of Barcelona on Thursday sat outside the parliament building ahead of another march planned for 10am on Friday

Marchers who took to the streets of Barcelona on Thursday sat outside the parliament building ahead of another march planned for 10am on Friday

Mario Rajoy, Spain's Prime Minister, is pictured (second left) on a banner which reads 'Republic'. He has taken a firm line against Catalonian independence, accusing Mr Puigdemont of holding an illegal referendum

Mario Rajoy, Spain's Prime Minister, is pictured (second left) on a banner which reads 'Republic'. He has taken a firm line against Catalonian independence, accusing Mr Puigdemont of holding an illegal referendum

Mario Rajoy, Spain’s Prime Minister, is pictured (second left) on a banner which reads ‘Republic’. He has taken a firm line against Catalonian independence, accusing Mr Puigdemont of holding an illegal referendum

Catalonia since the referendum: A timeline of the crisis

October 1: Violence-hit referendum

Hundreds of thousands of Catalans vote in an independence referendum that goes ahead despite a court ban deeming it unconstitutional. 

Spanish riot police try to block the vote. Shocking footage emerges of them using batons and rubber bullets on crowds and roughing up voters.

The Catalan government says 90 percent of those who voted backed independence, but turnout was only 43 percent as many who oppose a split boycotted the referendum.

October 3: General strike

A general strike called by unions and political groups disrupts Barcelona’s port, transport and some businesses. Up to 700,000 people demonstrate in the city against police violence, defending the right to vote.

King Felipe VI accuses Catalan leaders of threatening Spain’s stability and urges the state to defend ‘constitutional order’.

October 5: Business exodus begins

Banco Sabadell, Catalonia’s second largest bank, announces it will shift its registered domicile out of the region. More than 1,600 companies follow suit in a bid to minimise instability.

October 7-8: Mass protests

Tens of thousands of people demonstrate across Spain on October 7, some demanding unity, others demanding dialogue.

The next day hundreds of thousands march in Barcelona to back unity with Spain.

October 10: ‘Suspended’ independence declaration

In a move that sparks widespread confusion, Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont and his separatist allies sign a declaration of independence, but say they are suspending its implementation to allow for time for negotiations with Madrid.

The next day, Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy gives Puigdemont until October 16 to clarify his stance.

October 16: Separatists detained

Puigdemont refuses to say whether he had declared independence and instead calls for dialogue. Madrid gives him an extended deadline of October 19 to say whether he is planning to secede.

A court orders the leaders of two powerful grassroots independence groups, Jordi Cuixart and Jordi Sanchez, to be detained pending an investigation into sedition charges.

Their detention prompts tens of thousands to protest in Barcelona the following night.

October 21: Spain to sack Catalan government, force elections

Rajoy takes drastic steps to stop Catalonia breaking away, employing previously unused constitutional powers to seek the dismissal of Puigdemont’s government and new elections for the Catalan parliament. The Senate has to approve the measures.

Some 450,000 people join a separatist protest in Barcelona, with Puigdemont accusing Rajoy of ‘the worst attack on institutions and Catalan people’ since Spain’s dictatorship.

October 25: Puigdemont declines Senate meeting

Puigdemont turns down an invitation to address legislators in the Spanish Senate to state his case for independence, with a source saying he declined because Madrid ‘has already announced that it will implement Article 155 no matter what’.

Puigdemont then calls an urgent brainstorming meeting with his cabinet and pro-independence civil groups.

October 26: No regional elections, says Puigdemont

In a highly-anticipated address to the nation, Puigdemont says he considered calling elections to stave off the central government’s takeover bid, but received ‘no guarantees’ to make this possible.

In the hours before Puigdemont’s announcement, there had been feverish speculation that he would dissolve parliament and announce elections in a bid to keep Madrid at arm’s length.

October 27: Takeover v. independence

In Rajoy’s presence, Spanish senators meet to adopt drastic measures to seize control of Catalonia.

Rajoy asks the Senate for the go-ahead to depose Puigdemont and his executive in a bid to stop their independence drive.

In response, Catalan separatist parties file a resolution in the regional parliament in which they seek declare independence from Spain.

‘We declare Catalonia an independent state in the form of a republic,’ reads the start of the draft motion crafted by separatist lawmakers, which hold a majority in the regional parliament that may later proceed to a vote.

Thousands of activists gather outside the Catalan parliament to add their voice to the push for a break with Spain.

October 28: Madrid fires police chief.

Spain moves to assert direct control over the region, formally removing top officials including Puigdemont and Josep Lluis Trapero, the chief of Catalonia’s regional police, the Mossos d’Esquadra.

Thousands of people in Madrid gather under a giant Spanish flag in anger at Catalonia’s independence declaration.

Puigdemont responds to Madrid’s actions by calling for ‘democratic opposition’ to direct rule. 

Opposite sides: The rival leaders 

Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy  

The 62-year-old leader of the conservative Popular Party (PP) has served as Spain’s Prime Pinister since December 2011.

With a reputation as a political survivor, Rajoy is known for his strategy of playing for time to wear down his foes.

He began a second term last November after the left tore itself apart during 10 months in which Spain had no government following inconclusive elections.

He now heads a minority government backed by the centrist Ciudadanos, founded in Catalonia as an anti-independence party.

The premier’s detractors accuse him of failing to stop separatist sentiment from surging in Catalonia. Some say he even encouraged it after his party successfully pushed for the partial annulment of a 2006 statute of Catalan autonomy.

That statute, negotiated with the then-ruling Socialists, had given the region expanded powers and described Catalonia as a ‘nation’ within Spain.

Many Catalans viewed the episode as a humiliation.

Rajoy argues he could not give his approval for a Catalan independence referendum because it violates Spain’s constitution, which declares the country indivisible.

He told parliament Wednesday that suspending Catalonia’s autonomy was ‘the only possible response’ to Puigdemont’s independence push – a move some fear could spark unrest. 

 Catalan President Carles Puigdemont  

The 54-year-old conservative president of Catalonia, a former journalist, has advocated for independence since his youth.

The former mayor of Girona became head of the regional government in January 2016, replacing fellow conservative Artur Mas who was mistrusted by far-left separatists.

Puigdemont is under pressure from hardcore separatists to declare independence in defiance of the central government.

The separatist leadership says voters who took part in a banned secession referendum on October 1 overwhelmingly backed breaking away from Spain.

But turnout was just 43 per cent as Catalans in favour of remaining in Spain mostly boycotted the ballot, which did not meet international standards. 

Puigdemont yesterday ruled out fresh regional elections as a way to ease the crisis and left it up to Catalonia’s regional parliament to decide whether to proceed with a declaration of independence.

He also warned in a letter to the Senate that the crisis will escalate if Madrid takes over Catalonia’s powers.

Puigdemont has said he is willing to go to jail over his separatist drive.

He is under investigation for alleged civil disobedience.

He is also being investigated for abuse of office and misuse of public funds for staging the plebiscite. 

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont (right) and Catalan regional vice president and chief of economy and finance Oriol Junqueras attend a session at Catalan parliament on Thursday evening 

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont (right) and Catalan regional vice president and chief of economy and finance Oriol Junqueras attend a session at Catalan parliament on Thursday evening 

Catalan president Carles Puigdemont (right) and Catalan regional vice president and chief of economy and finance Oriol Junqueras attend a session at Catalan parliament on Thursday evening 

Hands up: Students gesture as they march during a protest against the Spanish government announcement of implementing the article 155 in Catalonia

Hands up: Students gesture as they march during a protest against the Spanish government announcement of implementing the article 155 in Catalonia

Hands up: Students gesture as they march during a protest against the Spanish government announcement of implementing the article 155 in Catalonia

Voices: Protesters demonstrate during a Catalan pro-independence strike of university students in Barcelona, Spain

Voices: Protesters demonstrate during a Catalan pro-independence strike of university students in Barcelona, Spain

Voices: Protesters demonstrate during a Catalan pro-independence strike of university students in Barcelona, Spain

A snap regional election could defuse Spain's deepest political crisis in decades - sparked by the October independence referendum in Catalonia which Madrid has branded 'illegal' - but so far the President has decided not to

A snap regional election could defuse Spain's deepest political crisis in decades - sparked by the October independence referendum in Catalonia which Madrid has branded 'illegal' - but so far the President has decided not to

A snap regional election could defuse Spain’s deepest political crisis in decades – sparked by the October independence referendum in Catalonia which Madrid has branded ‘illegal’ – but so far the President has decided not to

Real Madrid heading to Catalonia as crisis escalates  

Real Madrid face Catalan club Girona on Sunday amid heightened tensions in the northeastern region, which is seeking independence from Spain. Pictured: The side playing Fuenlabrada yesterday 

Real Madrid face Catalan club Girona on Sunday amid heightened tensions in the northeastern region, which is seeking independence from Spain. Pictured: The side playing Fuenlabrada yesterday 

Real Madrid face Catalan club Girona on Sunday amid heightened tensions in the northeastern region, which is seeking independence from Spain. Pictured: The side playing Fuenlabrada yesterday 

Real Madrid are trying to keep the focus on football as it travels to Catalonia to play a Spanish league match this weekend.

Madrid face Catalan club Girona on Sunday amid heightened tensions in the northeastern region, which is seeking independence from Spain. 

It will be Madrid’s first trip to Catalonia since the crisis escalated.

Madrid, seen as the club of the Spanish establishment, have reportedly taken precautions ahead of its trip, including not using its official team bus, but it has tried hard to distance itself from the political turmoil.

‘We’ll play our game without thinking about anything else,’ Madrid coach Zinedine Zidane said. ‘I’m not going to ask the fans for anything. We’re thinking about the game. We hope it’s a good match and nothing more than that.’

He said players are not concerned about their safety during the trip to Girona, a city filled with pro-independence sentiment just north of Barcelona.

‘We’re not worried about Catalonia because security will be as it always is,’ Zidane said.

Reports in Spain said there was a possibility that the game could be called off because of the situation in Catalonia, but the club was not yet making and drastic changes to its travel plans.  

Madrid faced Catalan club Espanyol in Madrid on the day of the independence referendum, when the Santiago Bernabeu Stadium was packed with fans carrying Spanish flags and showing their support of a unified country.

Madrid rival Barcelona have been deeply involved in the Catalonia issue. It has publicly defended the region’s right to choose, but it did not openly advocate independence. A unilateral declaration of independence would create problems for the club because it wants to keep playing in the Spanish league.

Barcelona played its league match against Las Palmas without fans at the Camp Nou to protest against the Spanish government’s actions during the referendum. Pro-independence flags and chants have always been present at Camp Nou, and they have intensified in recent weeks.

There were no problems when Barcelona traveled to the Spanish capital to face Atletico Madrid a few weeks ago, although the Wanda Metropolitano Stadium was also filled with Spanish flags.

Barcelona leads the Spanish league with 25 points from nine matches, four points more than second-place Valencia. Defending champion Madrid is five points off the lead, and Atletico Madrid is further point behind.

Barcelona play at Athletic Bilbao on Saturday. 

Decision time: Carles Puigdemont is expected to declare Catalan independence today

Decision time: Carles Puigdemont is expected to declare Catalan independence today

Pictured: Puigdemont and his wife Marcela

Pictured: Puigdemont and his wife Marcela

Decision time: Carles Puigdemont ‘s wife Marcela Topor, pictured together in January at a fashion show in Barcelona

Still no answer: Spain has demanded that  Puigdemont withdraws his 'suspended' declaration of independence, but he has not yet chosen to do so

Still no answer: Spain has demanded that  Puigdemont withdraws his 'suspended' declaration of independence, but he has not yet chosen to do so

Still no answer: Spain has demanded that  Puigdemont withdraws his ‘suspended’ declaration of independence, but he has not yet chosen to do so

Judgement day: Puigdemont is seen with Deputy President, Oriol Junqueras, left, and regional Presidency minister, Jordi Turull, right as they make their way to take part in the weekly regional cabinet meeting in Barcelona, on Tuesday

Judgement day: Puigdemont is seen with Deputy President, Oriol Junqueras, left, and regional Presidency minister, Jordi Turull, right as they make their way to take part in the weekly regional cabinet meeting in Barcelona, on Tuesday

Judgement day: Puigdemont is seen with Deputy President, Oriol Junqueras, left, and regional Presidency minister, Jordi Turull, right as they make their way to take part in the weekly regional cabinet meeting in Barcelona, on Tuesday

Spain could turn into the next bloody Balkans: How political tension could spill over into violence

By Mark Almond for the Daily Mail 

Spain’s Catalan crisis has stopped simmering and boiled over as, after weeks of dithering, the regional parliament voted to declare independence.

The reaction of the national government in Madrid was immediate – and unprecedented, revoking Catalonia’s autonomy and approving measures that allow it to impose direct rule over the region, at least until a new regional government is elected.

It raises the prospect of the feared civil guard and even the army being deployed as thousands of pro-independence voters last night took to the streets to celebrate.

If ever there was a time for cool heads, it is now. But even as the Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy was appealing for calm, some Catalans were threatening a campaign of civil disobedience in the event of a crackdown by Madrid.

Now a battle of wills that could turn ugly is on the cards. There are few in Spain who do not fear a looming confrontation between the Mossos, the local Catalan police committed to protecting their political leaders and public buildings, and forces from Madrid trying to suppress secession.

The risk of violence should not be underestimated. Think back to the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1991.

Few thought that Serbs, Croats, Bosnian Muslims and Kosovo Albanians would sink to the level of the brutal civil wars which wrecked the Balkans, but once blood is shed – even by accident – emotions can rapidly get out of hand.

No one knows how many of Catalonia’s 7.5million inhabitants truly want to break with Spain. In the illegal referendum earlier this month that triggered the present crisis, more than 90 per cent voted to leave. But only about 43 per cent of the population actually voted. Many pro-Spanish Catalans boycotted it.

However, it is clear that a vocal and dedicated group are determined now that their ‘nation’ should be independent, the autonomous powers it has enjoyed for decades are no longer enough.

Living in Spain’s richest region, Catalans have long been resentful at seeing so much of their taxes disappear to Madrid to ‘subsidise’ – as they see it – the rest of the country. But economics are only part of the crisis.

The Catalan sense of ‘self’ is ferociously strong – they are defined by their own language, culture, cuisine and a long tradition of defying Madrid. Catalan identity has been permitted to flourish only since the death of the dictator Franco in 1975, and of course Spanish politics continues to be haunted by the civil war fought by Franco’s Nationalists against the Republicans in the 1930s.

The fact that their great-grandparents and grandparents fought against Franco, while the PM Mariano Rajoy’s family sided with the dictator, is not lost on the Catalans today.

As for the EU, it has shown itself insensitive to the interests of small regions. Brussels and member governments of the EU, including our own, have said from the start that they won’t recognise a breakaway Catalonia which will not be allowed to join the EU or keep the euro.

The tenacity of Madrid as it contemplates a possible break-up is a key factor in the dangerous days and weeks ahead.

Again, there are historical lessons. Madrid lost control of Gibraltar to Britain in 1704, but more than 300 years on still lays claim to the Rock.

Even in the unlikely event of Catalonia managing some kind of functioning independence without open conflict with Spain, the fact remains that Madrid can block its access to the EU and other international bodies, so that the self-proclaimed state will effectively be under siege.

Prime minister Rajoy has called an election for the Catalans on December 21 – but this time it will be the Catalan nationalists who stay away.

At the very least a tug of war, if not violence, is coming fast to Catalonia.

No one in Spain seems able to act as an honest broker – certainly not King Felipe who, perhaps unwisely, has intervened to side with Madrid – while its partners in the EU refuse to do so.

What Spain needs now is friends to help mediate and calm things down.