As the United States becomes increasingly divided over the proper way to remember the Civil War, these horrifying images show the heavy price paid by Unionist soldiers.
The images, taken shortly after the four-year conflict finished in 1865, show soldiers with their arms, hands and legs missing.
One of the black-and-white photos shows a soldier show who has had his legs amputated from the waist down sitting in a 19th century wheelchair, while other show brave soldiers clutching their prosthetic limbs.
Between 620,000 and 750,000 men died in the conflict between the Confederate States of America and the Unionists, which raged between April 1861 and May 1865.
Following the end of the war, commander of the Union armies and future President, Ulysses S Grant said: ‘For the present, and so long as there are living witnesses of the great war of sections, there will be people who will not be consoled for the loss of a cause which they believed to be holy.
‘As time passes, people, even of the South, will begin to wonder how it was possible that their ancestors ever fought for or justified institutions which acknowledged the right of property in man.’
John W. January, veteran of Co. B, 14th Illinois Cavalry Regiment, with prosthetic legs (left). The photograph was taken by Bowman of Ottawa, Illonois, as visible at the bottom of the image. Sergeant Thomas Plunkett of Co. E, 21st Massachusetts Infantry Regiment in uniform with American flag (right)
Sergeant Alfred A. Stratton of Co. G, 147th New York Infantry Regiment, with amputated arms, was wounded in Petersburgh, Virginia
One of the battlegrounds in Sherman, Atlanta, which shows the true horror of some of the devices used to maim soldiers and win the war
Confederate soldiers were captured and kept as prisoners during conflict. Here, after a cavalry fight in Aldie, Virginia, soldiers from the south were rounded up
Private George W. Warner of Co. B, 20th Connecticut Infantry Regiment with amputated arms. It is not clear how he sustained his injuries
Bernard Tobey (right) poses with his son (left). Tobey became a double amputee during the war. He is pictured standing beside a a small wagon displaying Secretary of War Edwin Stanton’s dispatch on the fall of Fort Fisher shortly after the conflict
It is not clear what this soldier’s name is, although he is presumably a Unionist soldier as he poses by the American flag. He is forced to use a crutch after his right leg was wounded in the conflict
Artillery marching down the south bank of Rappahannock River, east Virginia on June 4, 1863
Atlanta, Ga. Gen. William T. Sherman, leaning on breach of gun, and staff at Federal Fort No. 7. The scale of the conflict was huge, with it often said that brothers fought brothers and husbands fought sons
Richard D. Dunphy, formerly Coal Heaver of US Navy in suit, had to undergo a double amputation to both of his arms
Private Vernon Mosher of Co. F, 97th New York Infantry Regiment, in uniform, amputated hand visible (left) and Corporal Michael Dunn of Co. H, 46th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, after the amputation of his legs in 1864, the result of injuries received in a battle near Dallas, Georgia, on May 25, 1864
US Artillery, going into action on south side of Rappahannock River below Fredericksburg, Va., June 4, 1863
Rifles, canons and gunpowder were widely used, leaving many of them survivors suffering from horrible injuries
The scale of the conflict was huge, with it often said that brothers fought brothers and husbands fought sons. Rifles, canons and gunpowder were widely used, leaving many of them survivors suffering from horrible injuries